Thursday, November 28, 2019

Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai Essay Example

Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai Paper Acid rain is any type of precipitation that has high acid content. This precipitation can be wet (rain, snow, or fog) or dry (gases or acidic salts). Normal rain is slightly acidic with pH 6. 5 but we call it acid rain when it is pH is between 2 and 5. 5. It is formed by chemicals created by the burning of fossil fuels, power plants, factories and auto mobiles. These chemicals are sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide. Sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide react with water in the atmosphere and eventually fall back to earth’s surface as an acid deposition. Shanghai is a city which is located on eastern coast of China. It is a strong commercial and industrial base city in China. Most of industries in Shanghai use 80 percent of electricity and 70 percent its total energy from burning of high sulphur coal. Coal is the main source of air pollution in Shanghai as well as most of other cities in China. The air pollution in Shanghai is sometimes terrible that air ports are shut down because of poor visibility. Nitrogen oxide is mainly released by power plants and automobiles in Shanghai. The high coal fuel consumption from urbanization and industrialization and the rapid increase of vehicles from motorization resulted in the high emission of sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide in Shanghai. The annual mean pH value of rain in Shanghai is 4. 4 and the frequency of acid rain is 71 percent. Acid rain in Shanghai with high sulphur and nitrogen contaminates all water bodies there will lead to water pollution. The high nitrogen in water increase the growth of blue green algae, will pollute whole water body will prevent using water for drinking, cleaning. We will write a custom essay sample on Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Also it changes the aquatic ecosystem. Acid rain is very toxic to species in water which can reduce the fish population and could eliminate all fish species form water body and decrease biodiversity. In addition, it may cause constant stress that may not kill individual fish, but will lead to lower body weight and makes fish less able to compete for food and habitat. Natural vegetation and crops are also affected by acid rain in Shanghai. Trees are an extremely important natural resources. They provide timber, regulate local climate and forest are homes for wildlife. The plants can absorb toxic chemicals from acid rain by direct contact with water or from soil. When acid rain is absorbed by the soil the acid empties the soil from important nutrients that plants need to survive. Without these nutrients the trees are more vulnerable to infections and damage cause by extreme climate. This will make plants and trees suffer from stunted growth, damage bark, loss of leaves will ultimate lead to rapid reduction of vegetation in Shanghai. Acid rain allows aluminum to soak into the soil. If the amount of aluminum in the soil is high the trees wouldn’t be able to collect water from the ground. Acid rain damages outer coat of the leaf and when the coat finally wears down the acid makes its way in to the tree which prevents photosynthesis from taking place. Since photosynthesis makes food for the plant without it the plants will eventually die. According to the research report of Shanghai Agriculture and Forestry Bureau, 2004, the area around Shanghai was rich in biodiversity. In the present, there is considerable loss of biodiversity and found decline in native species and an increase in number of alien species. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can cause serious problem to human health such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritations. Acid rain affects the human respiratory system and cause liver problems. Human skin has an oily coating which protects from bacteria and keeps the skin moist. Acid rain breakdown that oily protective coat which give us a result of dry skin and bacterial infection. Also the final effect on humans is to drinking water. As the content of our water becomes more acidic, it can react with lead and copper water pipes, which eventually contaminate water. Too much copper in drinking water also causes kidney damage as well as liver damage. An indirect effect of acid is the precipitation on human is that the toxic metals dissolves in the water are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxics metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious effects on humans and they are being consumed. As an example, mercury that accumulate in the organs and tissues of the animals has been linked with brain damage in children as well as nerve disorders, brain damage and Alzheimer’s disease. The harm to people from acid rain is not direct as for plants, animals, air, soil and water. Acid rain can be absorbed by both plants and animals through direct contact or from water or soil. When people eat these plants or animals, the toxins inside of their meals can affect them and cause problem in human health. According to the world health organization reports around 300,000 people die per year in China due to out door and indoor air pollution mainly due to high sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide and another particulate matter. A study of visibility, air quality and daily mortality in Shanghai in 2009 has showed decrease visibility and high air pollution in Shanghai significantly increased death due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Conclusion Acid rain forms in Shanghai mainly due to air pollution by industries and automobiles. It causes severe affect on Shanghai life. By educating shanghai public about the affect of acid rain, the damage caused by acid rain to the public will be reduced. However to minimize the damage on plants, soil and water, the air pollution of Shanghai should be reduced. BIBLIOGRAPHY Acid Rain Facts, Acid Rain Information, Acid Rain Pictures, Acid Rain Effects National Geographic. Environment Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, Ecosystems, Green Living National Geographic. National Geographic. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. . / Acid Rain How Is Acid Rain Formed? Learn More Our Changing Planet UMAC. UMAC Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. . Huang, K. , G. Zhuang, C. Xu, Y. Wang, and A. Tang. The Chemistry of the Severe Acidic Precipitation in Shanghai, China. Atmospheric Research 89. 1-2 (2008): 149-60. Print. Zhao, Shuqing, Liangjun Da, Zhiyao Tang, Hejun Fang, Kun Song, and Jingyun Fang. Ecological Consequences of Rapid Urban Expansion: Shanghai,

Sunday, November 24, 2019

A Civil Action Essays - Legal Entities, W. R. Grace And Company

A Civil Action Essays - Legal Entities, W. R. Grace And Company A Civil Action A Civil Action The movie A Civil Action brings up an interesting idea that many people in the public don't see or hear about very often. The idea that the big corporations often don't take into account the safety of the people that work for them or the people that live around the factories. These big corporations are run entirely by money and the idea of what things will cost and how much money they can possibly make. Too many times money is more important than the lives of human beings and the people that run these places only see in dollars and cents. The moral issues that this dilemma brings up are immense. This has been happening for centuries since the industrial revolution. Workers were subjected too harsh conditions and unsafe factories so that more goods could be produced. They had children as young as seven and eight years old working 15 hour days. In our modern times, toxic waste now plays a big part in the safety of people. The waste that these companies produce and dump under our noses don't seem to bother them in the least. The way microeconomics effects this must be fully explored to realize the way the corporate world thinks and acts. The goal of any corporation is to make the maximum profit that they can providing a good or service to the community while doing it as inexpensively as possible to them. Too many times producing these goods, toxic by-products are also produced. Nuclear power plants create plutonium, factories let poisonous gasses into the atmosphere, and chemicals are dumped into the drains and washed into our water everyday while being unknown to the people around them. The issue then becomes what to do with these poisons at the cheapest cost to retain the most revenue. In A Civil Action the W.R. Grace company decided that the best place to dump the T.C.E. was in the river behind the plant. It's too bad that all the people who lived down stream were also effected by the carelessness of this company. It got into the drinking water and gave kids cancer and seizures among other health conditions. These companies try to cover up these kinds of things as much as possible by buying people off. They think that if they give people money for their losses than everything will be alright. For huge corporations dealing with billions of dollars these payoffs are only a drop in the bucket for them. Even a million dollars to any family is an incredible amount of money and often the money becomes more important than the real issues behind the problem and can't be passed up by a family struggling to get by. The benefits of paying of these people for their trouble is much cheaper then doing things the right way in the beginning and protecting their safety. Money in our society has become a sense of power and authority. People think to many times that money is the key to happiness. Although money isn't a bad thing it effects the way people act and causes them to not care about the things that they should many times. Corporations have a structure that they follow in order to make them run in an efficient manner. In the movie John Travolta initially doesn't want to take the case because he doesn't think that there will be any money in it for him and his firm. Even though he goes and sees how much pain this company has caused to the people in Wolburn, he still doesn't care because of the money. Not until he realizes how big the companies are does he take the case. As the case goes on he isn't able to achieve what he ultimately wanted to do because the Grace Company has so much money that it will almost always win. Travolta's firm goes eight million into debt trying to win this case but ultimately has to settle because they can't go on. The firm doesn't even have to clean up the polluted land that caused all the problems. It wasn't until the E.P.A. steps in and with their power was able to achieve a

Thursday, November 21, 2019

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - Research Paper Example In Turkey, the dominant religion is Muslim; others are Christian and Jewish religions. Any problem in Peoplehood, in Turkey, maybe created by the fact that people believing in Christian and Jewish religions, maybe seen as inferior by people believing in the greater Muslim religion (Ibrahim & GÃ ¼rbey 78). Nation-states in their lifetime experience problems pertaining to territory and sovereignty. The conflicts usually arise because of other nation-states scrambling for resources owned by a different nation-state. Various problems regarding Turkey’s territory and sovereignty have been witnessed. In particular, there have been territorial disputes between Turkey and Iraq. To defend its territory and sovereignty, Turkey has retaliated against Kurdish insurgents from Iraq a number of times (Ibrahim & GÃ ¼rbey 98). Nationalism is a political concept that entails citizens of a defined nation or state deeply identifying themselves with their nation or state. The citizens, through self-determination usually strive to sustain and achieve some national goal. Nationalism originates from the idea of having a common origin, traditions, cultural ties and ethnicity. Through nationalism, an individual becomes a citizen of a nation or state voluntarily (Smith 37). Nationalism relates to nation building through the act of individuals in a nation or state voluntarily identifying themselves, their goals and determination with the state or nation. Individuals usually direct their self-determination towards the state, which results in nation building. An example of a demonstration of nationalism has been the act of citizens coming out to fight for the freedom of their state when insurgents or terrorists attack their state (Smith 36). Nationalism relates with international relations through the fact that it identifies simple nations or states, which