Sunday, December 29, 2019

What Is a Writ of Habeas Corpus

Convicted criminals who believe they have been wrongly imprisoned, or that the conditions in which they are being held fall below legal minimum standards for humane treatment, have the to right seek the assistance of a court by filing for a â€Å"writ of habeas corpus.† What It Is A writ of habeas corpus—literally meaning to â€Å"produce the body†Ã¢â‚¬â€is an order issued by a court of law to a prison warden or law enforcement agency holding an individual in custody to deliver that prisoner to the court so a judge can decide whether that prisoner had been lawfully imprisoned and, if not, whether they should be released from custody. To be considered enforceable, the writ of habeas corpus must list evidence showing that the court that ordered the prisoner’s detention or imprisonment had made a legal or factual error in doing so. The writ of habeas corpus is the right bestowed by the U.S. Constitution to individuals to present evidence to a court showing that they have been wrongly or illegally imprisoned. Though separate from the constitutional rights of defendants in the U.S. criminal justice system, the right to the writ of habeas corpus gives Americans the power to keep the institutions that might imprison them in check. In some countries without habeas corpus rights, the government or the military often jail political prisoners  for months or even years without charging them with a specific crime, access to a lawyer, or means of challenging their imprisonment. What It Is Not Writ of habeas corpus is different from a direct appeal, and usually only is filed after a direct appeal of conviction has failed. How It Works Evidence is presented from both sides during a court hearing. If not enough evidence is found in the inmates favor, they are returned to prison or jail as before. If the inmate provides sufficient evidence for the judge to rule in their favor, they could Have charges dismissedBe offered a new plea dealBe granted a new trialHave their sentence reducedHave their prison conditions improved Origins While the right to writs of habeas corpus is protected by the Constitution, its existence as a right of Americans dates back long before the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Americans actually inherited the right of habeas corpus from English common law of the Middle Ages, which granted the power to issue writs exclusively to the British monarch. Since the original 13 American colonies were under British control, the right to writ of habeas corpus applied to the colonists as English subjects. Immediately following the American Revolution, America became an independent republic based on â€Å"popular sovereignty,† a political doctrine that the people who live in a region should determine the nature of their government themselves. As a result, every American, in the name of the people, inherited the right to initiate writs of habeas corpus. Today, the â€Å"Suspension Clause†Ã¢â‚¬â€Article I, Section 9, clause 2—of the U.S. Constitution specifically includes the habeas corpus procedure, stating, â€Å"The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.† The Great Habeas Corpus Debate During the Constitutional Convention, the failure of the proposed Constitution to ban the suspension of the right to writ of habeas corpus under any circumstances, including â€Å"rebellion or invasion,† became one of the delegates’ most hotly debated issues. Maryland delegate Luther Martin passionately argued that the power to suspend the right to writs of habeas corpus could be used by the federal government to declare any opposition by any state to any federal law, â€Å"however arbitrary and unconstitutional† it might be, as an act of rebellion. However, it became apparent that a majority of the delegates believed that extreme conditions, such as war or invasion, could justify the suspension of habeas corpus rights. In the past, both presidents Abraham Lincoln and George W. Bush, among others, have suspended or attempted to suspend the right to writs of habeas corpus during times of war. President Lincoln temporarily suspended habeas corpus rights during the Civil War and Reconstruction. In 1866, after the end of the Civil War, the U.S. Supreme Court restored the right of habeas corpus. In reaction to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush suspended the habeas corpus rights of detainees being held by the U.S. military at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba naval base. However, the Supreme Court overturned his action in the 2008 case of Boumediene v. Bush.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

personal security Essay - 1574 Words

Personal Security MEASURES TAKEN TO PROTECT OURSELVEs Security is an ever changing and expanding tool that will need to be utilized until we have nothing to fear. There are no assurances of individual well-being in any setting. Terrorism is in our own backyards because last I checked rape, theft, assault, home invasions and carjacking are all forms of terrorism. Most people believe security is someone else’s responsibility but there are far too many people in the world for law enforcement agencies to possibly protect all at once. So that’s why many look into personal safety measures and discovering ways to protect themselves. I feel it is incumbent upon each individual to safeguard themselves against becoming the victim of a†¦show more content†¦However none of those skills will work or be any good to you if you are not aware of your settings. Cognizance of your situation consist of being heedful of where you are and where you are travelling, but also being aware about the state of your surroundings. The per fect mark for any would be aggressor is a timid, absentminded, preoccupied individual ignorant of their environment. And who seriously wants to be that vulnerable or that easy of a target. Ways that things such as that can be prevented is by taking the following precautions: 1. Walk with a friend whenever possible 2. Be alert and aware of your surroundings whether it be day or night. 3. Use well-lit routes 4. Trust your instincts. These are all suggestions of crime prevention and personal safety offered by Caltech. (Caltech Security, 2013) Knowing the crime trends or statistics of an area can be extremely helpful as well. Using the following websites one can find out about the crime in the United States because they make available the most inclusive breakdown of violent and property crime in the nation. They pull together the bulk of and frequency of crime offenses for the nation, states, cities and counties and goes back as far as 1960s. The sites are ervices/crimerates and but honestly if all else fails just google it. But if you are like me and want toShow MoreRelatedPersonal Information And Network Security2054 Words   |  9 Pages Personal information and network security is vital in today’s online environment. There are my people that are out there to get someone’s personal information in order to either to seal the personal information for financial gain or in some cases personal harassment. Ensuring that your equipment and settings are kept to a degree that works well for your usage can minimize these types of attacks. Settings can be found at multiple layers of a home network that includes the computer right from theRead MoreImportance of Security of Personal Belongingsg642 Words   |  3 PagesPFC Racheau Lipscomb Importance of Security of Personal Belongings Accountability without security is definitely not the right answer to a successful business or working environment, take for example; your NCO or boss leaves you in charge of a simple task of moving one piece of equipment to another location without help. While your undergoing this process you leave your previous location where it is unsafe meaning anyone has access to it. Anything could happen within that span of time thatRead MoreVast Security Threats to Personal Computers Essay831 Words   |  4 PagesThere are a vast amount of security threats to a personal computer. These security threats are harmful because if successfully activated an attacker can access personal information and use it for potential harm to you or your computer. These attacks can also potentially slow down your personal computer and may even cause it to crash. When a computer crashes and the information is not backed up somewhere else you won’t be able to retrieve your data. There are techniques that attackers use to accessRead MoreAustralian Personal Property Securities Laws Essay3186 Words   |  13 PagesQuestion 1 (a) Australian laws relating to personal property securities (â€Å"PPS†) have been messy for years, based on often incomplete state records which have never been centralised. The major rationales for the reforms are that the previous laws were inflexible, outdated, and prevent product innovation.[1] Personal property incorporates intellectual property , an important repository of wealth in the 21st century. This causes a need to incorporatefor flexible and modern laws which encourageRead MoreWhy Personal Information Is Risky On The Internet And The Situation Of Information Security1422 Words   |  6 Pagesstrategy of the government and enterprises, but also threaten citizens’ personal information security. There are significant issues increases rapidly due to this environment such as transfer , reproduction and abuse of personal information. Therefore, it provides convenience to criminal who wants to steal personal information of other people for benefit reason or other reasons. This essay aims to introduce the risks to personal information on the internet and find some solutions to relieve even solveRead MoreFull Body Scans: a Matter of National Security vs. Personal Indignities1304 Words   |  6 PagesMatter of National Security vs. Personal Indignities Safety and security is important and a high priority for anyone. As a result of several events, such as the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the now infamous Christmas day â€Å"Underwear Bomber† transportation security has been revamped and reinvented to protect innocent people from religious/political extremists and crazies alike. In some cases, measures of heightened security have been praised such as the hiring of more security guards or the additionRead MoreExamples Of Personal Property Securities754 Words   |  4 PagesPersonal property securities legislation – overview of the legal framework The Personal Property Securities Act 2009 (Cth) creates a comprehensive national regime for personal property securities (PPS). Subject only to limited exceptions, security interests over personal property are primarily governed by the PPS Act. These securities range from fixed and floating charges over corporate assets, to share mortgages, to security interests over vehicles and aircraft, and to finance leases of plant andRead MorePersonal Statement : Privacy And Security1232 Words   |  5 PagesData collection generally can provide and opportunity for abuse, misuse and identity theft in some cases (there have been several reported cases of major data breached from companies like Target and Apple). Privacy and security are one of the biggest issues, my client will be justifiably concerned not only about what my company will do with the data we will collect, but also how it will be protected from third parties. Transparency about the use and protection of consumers’ data wil l reinforce trustRead MorePersonal Privacy or National Security2424 Words   |  10 PagesPersonal Privacy or National Security William Shelton ENG122: English Composition Prof. Lisa Clark August 7, 2012 Defining National Security VS Personal Privacy is a matter of looking at the basic nature of each. From research collected there is a consensus that we need balance. Too much of one hurts the other and vise versa. There are a couple of articles that range from Civil Liberties to the birth of public right to know that support the overall claim. Talks about the effects of censorshipRead MoreLanguage, Language And Personal Security2538 Words   |  11 PagesProverbs chapter ten talks about quite a few topics, to list the moral categories mentioned throughout the proverb there is diligence, laziness, language and personal security. This proverb comes from Solomon and starts off with the difference between the foolish son and a wise son. The wise son gives joy to the to the parent whereas the foolish one brings sorrow. In the same sort of comparison continuing on with the foolish like the lazy and the wise like the diligent, the proverb continues on in

Friday, December 13, 2019

The role of intuitive judgement in strategic decision-making Free Essays

Introduction This research will examine The Role of Intuitive Judgement in Strategic Decision-Making by studying the measures used within the organisations and means of a Literature Review. Literature Review will look at the, use of intuitive skills which will be discussed. Research questions, the circumstances under which intuitive judgement is employed and the conditions under which it is effective and strategic decision-making are considered. We will write a custom essay sample on The role of intuitive judgement in strategic decision-making or any similar topic only for you Order Now Finally, the Literature Review will explore the role played by intuition in TMT decision-making. Using MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator), the study will analyse the decision making style of managers. Those are two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition (irrational) the two judging functions, thinking and feeling (rational). Myers et al., 1998 has identified four cognitive styles (ST, SF, NT and NF). Sufficient support has received for using the method of MBTI (Myers Briggs Type Indicator) as a measure of Jungian Personality dimensions. (e.g. Rosenak Shontz 1988;Gardner Martinko, 1996; Myers et al, 1998). (Cited in Gallen, T. 2006). Thus this study will fill the gap between Hambrick and Mason’s (1984) ‘upper echelons’ model of organizations, in the field of strategic decision-making which mainly examined the demographic factors influencing top management team’s (TMT’s) decision-making and firm performance not intuition’s role and team interaction mechanisms affect in the process of decision making and firm performance. The research question is: How do team interaction mechanisms affect intuitive judgement of the Leader (Decision Maker)? Approach and Outline(Theory Being Tested) The conceptual model shows that Team effectiveness – displayed as an input-throughput-output model – is a multilevel phenomenon. As Hambrick and Mason (1984) argue, corporate performance is a reflection of the decision makers in the upper echelons of the corporation, thus director-level variables are linked to firm-level variables. However, as argued above, this type of reasoning ignores Agor (1986) study which indicates that intuition is especially important in situations characterised by high levels of uncertainty, where facts are limited, where there are few precedents and when time is limited. In order to promote change in an organization’s strategy, (Gallen, T. 2006) it might be necessary to consider a successor’s personality too: sometimes a sensing (S) manager may be replaced by an intuitive (N) manager. (Gallen, T. 2006) In line with Clares (1999) suggests that those who can think intuitively may have a valuable contribution to make to the management process, thus Director Characteristics include Extraversion (E)/Introversion (I) Sensing (S)/Intuition (N) and Thinking (T)/Feeling (F). Next, these input variables lead to outcomes, first at the team level. The team role performance block is to be interpreted as the issue to what extent the team monitors top management and to what extent the team provides resources to the firm. Team-level outcomes contribute to firm performance, where one has to take into account that good corporate performance is defined differently by various stakeholders (Wood and Jones, 1995). The behavioural propositions will be tested on a dataset that will be gathered for this research. This data will consist of answers to a wide variety of statements on team working style and the company’s environment. Several hundred replies will be collected from UK and Indian SMEs and MLEs, CEOs. The studies in this set focus on UK and Indian corporations. A first study will identify team processes such as effort, conflict, cooperation and use of knowledge and hypothesis upon the relationships among these concepts and between these concepts and team role performance. An intriguing issue in this research is that the major team roles that have been identified are theoretically non-complementary (monitoring requires distance, whereas strategy and service demands proximity) and practically unidentified because various activities are performed that could be considered part of both roles. A second study will test hypotheses on team capital and team performance, confronting the views of CEOs and chairmen on team relations. For both studies, case studies and small sample quantitative research needed to be identified the variables of interest and standard instruments to measure these concepts have been developed but it remains to be shown that the results generalise to larger populations and which contextual forces are important. The second set of studies concerns the team’s role in satisfying claims of stakeholder groups other than shareholders only. Specifically, it will be analysed whether some demographic configuration of the team is preferred to other team structures if it comes to making stakeholder relationships profitable. Thus, in terms of Figure 1, the middle column is held constant and a detailed analysis of director characteristics on various performance measures will be undertaken. A longitudinal study will be undertaken to investigate the dynamics of the alleged relationship between team interaction mechanisms and intuitive judgment. This study thus assesses whether team interaction mechanism is a serious issue. A cross-sectional study will be conducted to pinpoint at network theoretical and team demographic variables that are key to this relationship, seeking an optimal team structure from various team management’s views. The third and final set of studies takes a specific aspect of the intuitive role of directors and a theory of intuitive judgment in strategic decision making will be developed and answers will be sought to the How do team interaction mechanisms affect intuitive judgment of the Leader (Decision Maker)?, question that have been left unanswered to date. This field is theoretically highly undeveloped and thus it is not yet clear where to fit the set of studies in Figure 1. It is likely, however, that the development will be parallel to the first set in which director and team characteristics will be considered as drivers of firm strategy. The empirical setting is United Kingdom and India, for which a set on compliance with the corporate governance code and director profiles and networks will be composed. The studies are cross-sectional in nature and cover the majority of UK and Indian listed corporations. Qualitative data will be used in this connection and analysis of data will be interpreted using SPSS. List of References Agor, W.H. (1986), The Logic of Intuitive Decision Making: A Research-based Approach for Top Management, Quorum Books, New York, NY. Clares, M.-T. (1999), â€Å"Women, men and management styles†, International Labour Review, 138 (4), pp. 41-6. Daily, C.M., Dalton, D.R., and Cannella, A.A. jr. 2003. Corporate governance: decades of dialogue and data. Academy of Management Review 28: pp. 371-382 Forbes, D.P., and Milliken, F.J. 1999. Cognition and corporate governance: Understanding boards of directors as strategic decision-making groups. Academy of Management Review 24: pp.489-505 Gallen, T. 2006 Managers and strategic decisions: does the cognitive style matterJournal of Management Development. 25 (2) pp. 118-133. Gabrielsson, J., and Huse, M. 2004. Context, behavior, and evolution: Challenges in research on boards and governance. International Studies of Management and Organization 34: pp.11-36. Gardner, W.L., Martinko, M.J. (1996), â€Å"Using the Myers-Briggs type indicator to study managers: a literature review and research agenda†, Journal of Management, 22 (1), pp.45-83. Hambrick, D.C., Mason, P.A. (1984), â€Å"Upper echelons: the organization as a reflection of its top managers†, Academy of Management Review, 9 (2), pp.193-206. Henderson, J.C., Nutt, P.C. (1980), â€Å"The influence of decision style on decision-making behavior†, Management Science, 26(4), pp.371-86. Hermalin, B.E., and Weisbach, M.S. 1998. Endogenously chosen boards of directors and their monitoring of the CEO. American Economic Review 88: pp.96-118 Hillman, A.J., and Dalziel, T. 2003. Boards of directors and firm performance: Integrating agency and resource dependence perspectives. Academy of Management Review 28: pp.383-396 Huse, M. 1993. Relational norms as a supplement to neo-classical understanding of directorates: An empirical study of boards of directors. Journal of Socio-economics 22: pp.219-240 John Hayes, Christopher W. Allinson, Steven J. Armstrong, (2004) â€Å"Intuition, women managers and gendered stereotypes†, Personnel Review, Vol. 33 Iss: 4, pp.403 – 417 Ibarra, H., Kilduff, M., and Tsai, W. 2005. Zooming in and out: Connecting individuals and collectivities at the frontiers of organizational network research. Organization Science 16: pp.359-371. Isenberg, D.J. (1984), â€Å"How senior managers think†, Harvard Business Review, November-December, pp. 81-90. McNulty, T., and Pettigrew, A. 1999. Strategists on the board. Organization Studies 20: pp.47-74 Myers, I.B., McCaulley, M.H., Quenk, N.L., Hammer, A.L. (1998), A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 3rd ed., Consulting Psychologist Press, Palo Alto, CA, . Parikh, J., Neubauer, F. and Lank, A.G. (1994), Intuition: The New Frontier of Management, Blackwell, Oxford Pettigrew, A.M. 1992. On studying managerial elites. Strategic Management Journal 13: pp.163-182 Rosenak, C.M., Shontz, F.C. (1988), â€Å"Jungian Q-sorts: demonstrating construct validity for psychological type and the MBTI†, Journal of Psychological Type, 15 pp.33-45. Stumpf, S.A., Dunbar, R.L.M. (1991), â€Å"The effects of personality type on choices made in strategic decision situations†, Decision Sciences, 22 (5), pp.1047-69. Tiina Gallen, (2006) â€Å"Managers and strategic decisions: does the cognitive style matter?†, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 25 Iss: 2, pp.118 – 133 Wood, D.J. and Jones, R.E. 1995. Stakeholder mismatching: A theoretical problem in empirical research on corporate social performance. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 3: pp.229-267 Zahra, S.A., and Pearce, J.A. II 1989. Boards of directors and corporate financial performance: A review and integrative model. Journal of Management 15: pp.291-334 A Study of Intuition in Decision-Making using Organizational Engineering Methodology By Ashley Floyd Fields How to cite The role of intuitive judgement in strategic decision-making, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Should Kids Wear Uniforms free essay sample

Should kids be forced to wear uniforms? Should kids be forced to wear uniforms? Will uniforms really help kids? Most schools are debating this issue. A lot of kids would instantly say â€Å"No. † Although I believe that we should not have uniforms, there are plenty of reasons why we should have uniforms. Uniforms cannot help the school out, or can they? One thing that the school would benefit from enforcing school uniforms is no violations of the school dress code. Sometimes kids are called up to the office during class time because their clothes violate the dress code. This time up in the office could have been used for education, but instead they are up in the office getting a lab coat. Kids would not be able to violate the school dress code if they were all wearing the same outfits. However, that would mean no kid would be able express themselves. We will write a custom essay sample on Should Kids Wear Uniforms? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Kids like to express themselves in different ways and that will not be possible if they are forced to wear one type of clothing. Some kids are not as lucky as others. Some kid’s parents are rich while others may be poor. If the school enforced uniforms, no one could judge each other by just the look of their clothing. Although this is a positive for the kids, there is a negative for the school. If they ever needed to identify a student for whatever reason, it would be nearly impossible to identify that student unless you had help. If a student commits vandalism in the bathroom, for example, the camera might catch them but as long as the camera does not catch their face, it would be impossible to find out who did it. You may be thinking, â€Å"Having kids wear uniforms will cause them to make better grades. † This might be true, but would you want to risk the chance of losing some of your students just because you force them to wear uniforms? My guess is that most people might simply give up because they are forced to do something unpleasant. Most people would not like to wear uniforms because they cannot be educated to the fullest when they thinking of when they get home and take off their uniform. Uniforms may be a good source because they will help students stay more focused on schoolwork. Think about it for a moment though. Most students would not like a uniform because they lose the potential to express themselves to the world. If something ever happened to a kid, it would be hard to identify the kid because he looks the exact same as all the other kids. Most kids choose how they wear their clothing but if a school uniform was issued, everyone would only change into that one uniform for school. I think I can safely say that school uniforms should not be required to run this school at its highest standards.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai Essay Example

Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai Paper Acid rain is any type of precipitation that has high acid content. This precipitation can be wet (rain, snow, or fog) or dry (gases or acidic salts). Normal rain is slightly acidic with pH 6. 5 but we call it acid rain when it is pH is between 2 and 5. 5. It is formed by chemicals created by the burning of fossil fuels, power plants, factories and auto mobiles. These chemicals are sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide. Sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide react with water in the atmosphere and eventually fall back to earth’s surface as an acid deposition. Shanghai is a city which is located on eastern coast of China. It is a strong commercial and industrial base city in China. Most of industries in Shanghai use 80 percent of electricity and 70 percent its total energy from burning of high sulphur coal. Coal is the main source of air pollution in Shanghai as well as most of other cities in China. The air pollution in Shanghai is sometimes terrible that air ports are shut down because of poor visibility. Nitrogen oxide is mainly released by power plants and automobiles in Shanghai. The high coal fuel consumption from urbanization and industrialization and the rapid increase of vehicles from motorization resulted in the high emission of sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide in Shanghai. The annual mean pH value of rain in Shanghai is 4. 4 and the frequency of acid rain is 71 percent. Acid rain in Shanghai with high sulphur and nitrogen contaminates all water bodies there will lead to water pollution. The high nitrogen in water increase the growth of blue green algae, will pollute whole water body will prevent using water for drinking, cleaning. We will write a custom essay sample on Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Acid Rain Has a Major Affect on Life in Shanghai specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Also it changes the aquatic ecosystem. Acid rain is very toxic to species in water which can reduce the fish population and could eliminate all fish species form water body and decrease biodiversity. In addition, it may cause constant stress that may not kill individual fish, but will lead to lower body weight and makes fish less able to compete for food and habitat. Natural vegetation and crops are also affected by acid rain in Shanghai. Trees are an extremely important natural resources. They provide timber, regulate local climate and forest are homes for wildlife. The plants can absorb toxic chemicals from acid rain by direct contact with water or from soil. When acid rain is absorbed by the soil the acid empties the soil from important nutrients that plants need to survive. Without these nutrients the trees are more vulnerable to infections and damage cause by extreme climate. This will make plants and trees suffer from stunted growth, damage bark, loss of leaves will ultimate lead to rapid reduction of vegetation in Shanghai. Acid rain allows aluminum to soak into the soil. If the amount of aluminum in the soil is high the trees wouldn’t be able to collect water from the ground. Acid rain damages outer coat of the leaf and when the coat finally wears down the acid makes its way in to the tree which prevents photosynthesis from taking place. Since photosynthesis makes food for the plant without it the plants will eventually die. According to the research report of Shanghai Agriculture and Forestry Bureau, 2004, the area around Shanghai was rich in biodiversity. In the present, there is considerable loss of biodiversity and found decline in native species and an increase in number of alien species. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can cause serious problem to human health such as asthma, dry coughs, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritations. Acid rain affects the human respiratory system and cause liver problems. Human skin has an oily coating which protects from bacteria and keeps the skin moist. Acid rain breakdown that oily protective coat which give us a result of dry skin and bacterial infection. Also the final effect on humans is to drinking water. As the content of our water becomes more acidic, it can react with lead and copper water pipes, which eventually contaminate water. Too much copper in drinking water also causes kidney damage as well as liver damage. An indirect effect of acid is the precipitation on human is that the toxic metals dissolves in the water are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and in the tissues of animals. Although these toxics metals do not directly affect the animals, they have serious effects on humans and they are being consumed. As an example, mercury that accumulate in the organs and tissues of the animals has been linked with brain damage in children as well as nerve disorders, brain damage and Alzheimer’s disease. The harm to people from acid rain is not direct as for plants, animals, air, soil and water. Acid rain can be absorbed by both plants and animals through direct contact or from water or soil. When people eat these plants or animals, the toxins inside of their meals can affect them and cause problem in human health. According to the world health organization reports around 300,000 people die per year in China due to out door and indoor air pollution mainly due to high sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide and another particulate matter. A study of visibility, air quality and daily mortality in Shanghai in 2009 has showed decrease visibility and high air pollution in Shanghai significantly increased death due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Conclusion Acid rain forms in Shanghai mainly due to air pollution by industries and automobiles. It causes severe affect on Shanghai life. By educating shanghai public about the affect of acid rain, the damage caused by acid rain to the public will be reduced. However to minimize the damage on plants, soil and water, the air pollution of Shanghai should be reduced. BIBLIOGRAPHY Acid Rain Facts, Acid Rain Information, Acid Rain Pictures, Acid Rain Effects National Geographic. Environment Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, Ecosystems, Green Living National Geographic. National Geographic. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. . / Acid Rain How Is Acid Rain Formed? Learn More Our Changing Planet UMAC. UMAC Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. . Huang, K. , G. Zhuang, C. Xu, Y. Wang, and A. Tang. The Chemistry of the Severe Acidic Precipitation in Shanghai, China. Atmospheric Research 89. 1-2 (2008): 149-60. Print. Zhao, Shuqing, Liangjun Da, Zhiyao Tang, Hejun Fang, Kun Song, and Jingyun Fang. Ecological Consequences of Rapid Urban Expansion: Shanghai,

Sunday, November 24, 2019

A Civil Action Essays - Legal Entities, W. R. Grace And Company

A Civil Action Essays - Legal Entities, W. R. Grace And Company A Civil Action A Civil Action The movie A Civil Action brings up an interesting idea that many people in the public don't see or hear about very often. The idea that the big corporations often don't take into account the safety of the people that work for them or the people that live around the factories. These big corporations are run entirely by money and the idea of what things will cost and how much money they can possibly make. Too many times money is more important than the lives of human beings and the people that run these places only see in dollars and cents. The moral issues that this dilemma brings up are immense. This has been happening for centuries since the industrial revolution. Workers were subjected too harsh conditions and unsafe factories so that more goods could be produced. They had children as young as seven and eight years old working 15 hour days. In our modern times, toxic waste now plays a big part in the safety of people. The waste that these companies produce and dump under our noses don't seem to bother them in the least. The way microeconomics effects this must be fully explored to realize the way the corporate world thinks and acts. The goal of any corporation is to make the maximum profit that they can providing a good or service to the community while doing it as inexpensively as possible to them. Too many times producing these goods, toxic by-products are also produced. Nuclear power plants create plutonium, factories let poisonous gasses into the atmosphere, and chemicals are dumped into the drains and washed into our water everyday while being unknown to the people around them. The issue then becomes what to do with these poisons at the cheapest cost to retain the most revenue. In A Civil Action the W.R. Grace company decided that the best place to dump the T.C.E. was in the river behind the plant. It's too bad that all the people who lived down stream were also effected by the carelessness of this company. It got into the drinking water and gave kids cancer and seizures among other health conditions. These companies try to cover up these kinds of things as much as possible by buying people off. They think that if they give people money for their losses than everything will be alright. For huge corporations dealing with billions of dollars these payoffs are only a drop in the bucket for them. Even a million dollars to any family is an incredible amount of money and often the money becomes more important than the real issues behind the problem and can't be passed up by a family struggling to get by. The benefits of paying of these people for their trouble is much cheaper then doing things the right way in the beginning and protecting their safety. Money in our society has become a sense of power and authority. People think to many times that money is the key to happiness. Although money isn't a bad thing it effects the way people act and causes them to not care about the things that they should many times. Corporations have a structure that they follow in order to make them run in an efficient manner. In the movie John Travolta initially doesn't want to take the case because he doesn't think that there will be any money in it for him and his firm. Even though he goes and sees how much pain this company has caused to the people in Wolburn, he still doesn't care because of the money. Not until he realizes how big the companies are does he take the case. As the case goes on he isn't able to achieve what he ultimately wanted to do because the Grace Company has so much money that it will almost always win. Travolta's firm goes eight million into debt trying to win this case but ultimately has to settle because they can't go on. The firm doesn't even have to clean up the polluted land that caused all the problems. It wasn't until the E.P.A. steps in and with their power was able to achieve a

Thursday, November 21, 2019

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - Research Paper Example In Turkey, the dominant religion is Muslim; others are Christian and Jewish religions. Any problem in Peoplehood, in Turkey, maybe created by the fact that people believing in Christian and Jewish religions, maybe seen as inferior by people believing in the greater Muslim religion (Ibrahim & GÃ ¼rbey 78). Nation-states in their lifetime experience problems pertaining to territory and sovereignty. The conflicts usually arise because of other nation-states scrambling for resources owned by a different nation-state. Various problems regarding Turkey’s territory and sovereignty have been witnessed. In particular, there have been territorial disputes between Turkey and Iraq. To defend its territory and sovereignty, Turkey has retaliated against Kurdish insurgents from Iraq a number of times (Ibrahim & GÃ ¼rbey 98). Nationalism is a political concept that entails citizens of a defined nation or state deeply identifying themselves with their nation or state. The citizens, through self-determination usually strive to sustain and achieve some national goal. Nationalism originates from the idea of having a common origin, traditions, cultural ties and ethnicity. Through nationalism, an individual becomes a citizen of a nation or state voluntarily (Smith 37). Nationalism relates to nation building through the act of individuals in a nation or state voluntarily identifying themselves, their goals and determination with the state or nation. Individuals usually direct their self-determination towards the state, which results in nation building. An example of a demonstration of nationalism has been the act of citizens coming out to fight for the freedom of their state when insurgents or terrorists attack their state (Smith 36). Nationalism relates with international relations through the fact that it identifies simple nations or states, which